Annual Report 2014
Country Reports


Maria Olsson Swedish Energy Agency

During 2014, the Sotenäs project, which is planned to become one of the largest wave energy parks in the world, progressed. The first 10 generators were put into the ocean and around 20 more are expected to be installed soon. During 2014, the Swedish Energy Agency also started a national ocean energy programme that will run for four years. The aim is to strengthen the research and development being done in the area and increase the cooperation between and within academia and industry. A first call has recently opened for academia, institutes and industry to apply.


The Swedish energy policy is based on the same foundations as energy cooperation in the European Union (EU) and seeks to reconcile environmental sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. The vision is that, by 2050, Sweden has a sustainable and resource efficient supply of energy and no net emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

In order to realize the vision and implement the EU 20-20-20-targets, the following national target for renewable energy, reduction of carbon emission and efficient use of energy in Sweden by 2020 has been set:

  • The share of renewable energy in 2020 should be at least 50 percent of total energy use.
  • The share of renewable energy in the transport sector should also be at least 10 percent.
  • A 40 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels;
  • A further goal is 20 percent more efficient energy use in 2020, expressed as a reduction in energy intensity of 20 percent between the years 2008-2020.

The forecast for Sweden in 2014 is that in 2020 the first three goals will be achieved with margin, while the last goal concerning efficient energy use is more uncertain.

In 2014, the Ministry of Enterprises, Energy and Communications continued the work on a national maritime strategy that will present actions, aiming at a sustainable development of industries related to the sea, which includes ocean energy. In parallel, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management is preparing the forthcoming national marine spatial plans. New Swedish legislation on marine spatial planning came into force on 1 September 2014. The marine spatial plans will be directional (non-binding) during the consenting process.


The Swedish Water Law is now under review. It has been suggested that more water related activities should be made subject only to notification and not a full-permit process but nothing has been decided yet. 


Fundamental to the long-term Swedish energy policy are general economic policy instruments such as carbon tax, international emissions trading and tradable certificates for renewable electricity. From the perspective of ocean energy technology development, the renewable electricity certificate system (a tradable green certificate system) is the most relevant policy instrument.

The electricity certificate system is a market-based support system for cost-effective expansion of electricity production from renewable sources. By design, the system does not specifically target a particular renewable electricity conversion technology, i.e. is technology neutral. Electricity certificates are issued to those who produce electricity from one or more renewable energy sources, or from peat, and who have had their production plants approved by the Swedish Energy Agency. To date, certificates have been issued to producers of electricity from biofuels and peat, wind power, hydro power and solar electricity. While wave energy is one of the renewable energy sources for which producers would be eligible for certificates, none has been issued so far. 

In 2011, Sweden and Norway entered into an agreement to form a joint electricity certificate market, which has been in operation since the beginning of 2012. Together with Norway, annual production from renewable sources in 2020 shall have increased by a further 13,2 TWh relative to production in 2012.


The main public funding mechanism for research, business and technology development and technology
demonstration are Swedish governmental agencies tasked to support academic and private sector R&D in the various stages of innovation. There are a number of governmental agencies from which researchers and developers can apply for funding.

  • The Swedish Research Council,, which, among other things, is tasked to fund fundamental research and expensive equipment for research purposes within a large number of topic areas.
  • The Swedish Energy Agency,, is the Swedish agency responsible for facilitating a sustainable energy system in Sweden. As such, the agency funds research, business and technology development and technology demonstration which is relevant for the sustainability of the energy system and the sustainability of the energy industry sectors.
  • The Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA),, supports business and technology development. VINNOVA also acts as contact point for the European Community FP7 for research and development.

In addition, regional authorities are able to grant funding to varying extents. 

The Swedish Energy Agency has currently started a national ocean energy programme that will run for four years. The aim is to strengthen the research and development being done in the area and increase the cooperation between and within academia and industry. Before forming a programme, an extensive mapping of the Swedish ocean energy sector and their needs has been carried out.


There are two research sites in Sweden, Lysekil wave power research site and Söderfors marine currents research site. Both sites are operated by Uppsala University. A third site, Sotenäs wave power demonstration facility, is under development and the project is led by Seabased Industry AB in cooperation with Fortum. Interest has been expressed to expand the Lysekil wave power research site and thus allow access to other universities and developers from Sweden and Europe.